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Simple activities like taking a book off an overhead shelf can be impossible when you have a frozen shoulder.

Frozen shoulder (also called adhesive capsulitis) is a common disorder that causes pain, stiffness and loss of normal range of motion in the shoulder. The resulting condition can be serious and tends to get worse with time if not treated. It typically affects people between the ages of 40 to 60 and women more often than men.

We don't fully understand the causes, but an inflammatory process is probably involved. Sometimes freezing occurs because the shoulder has been immobilized for a long time by injury, surgery or illness. In many cases, the cause is far less obvious. Fortunately, the shoulder can usually be unfrozen, though full recovery takes time -- and lots of self-help.

The trademark symptoms include pain and progressive stiffness. At first, the shoulder is painful, but range of motion is still good. As the condition progresses, range of motion begins to decrease. By the time the shoulder eventually becomes "frozen," much of the pain has resolved, but you have difficulty moving your shoulder at all.

Frozen shoulder is different from bursitis, another common shoulder ailment. With bursitis, pain and inflammation arise from repeated overhead movements like those involved in tennis, golf and swimming. Pain often occurs during these activities, too. In comparison, the early pain of frozen shoulder is present even when the shoulder is at rest.

The good news is that frozen shoulder resolves on its own -- but the entire cycle, from early symptoms to recovery, can last from nine months to two years.

Freezing, frozen and thawing

Frozen shoulder has three stages: freezing, frozen and thawing.

• Freezing -- This is the slow, gradual buildup of pain and stiffness. Over time, you notice the shoulder lose more of its range of motion. During this period, the inflamed shoulder can be quite painful, and you may get steroid injections, spaced several weeks apart, to help ease the discomfort.

• Frozen -- The pain begins to dissipate, but your range of motion is the most limited. You can do light chores and carry some weight on that side of your body, but it is still hard to lift your arm overhead. You often have difficulty with everyday movements, like dressing or reaching into your back pocket.

• Thawing -- Stiffness goes away as the shoulder begins to heal. This is when you begin stretching exercises and formal therapy to help restore flexibility and range of motion. Typically, a physician or physical therapist teaches you the exercises, which you then do at home for several weeks or months.

If you think you have a frozen shoulder or are developing one, see your physician or a shoulder expert for a physical exam. To assess your shoulder's range of motion, he or she will ask you to perform various movements with your arm, such as reaching across your chest to touch the opposite shoulder or down your back to touch the opposite shoulder blade. He or she may take X-rays to make sure there's no other underlying problem, such as arthritic changes or a dislocation. An MRI may be ordered to check for a rotator cuff tear.

Treatment is focused on relieving pain and restoring the shoulder's normal range of motion. Your physician may recommend an anti-inflammatory medication such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), or naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox). An ice pack or bag of frozen vegetables applied to the shoulder for 10 to 15 minutes several times a day also can help with pain. You may be given a corticosteroid injection into the shoulder joint or soft tissues. But the cornerstone of treatment is physical therapy, concentrating first on exercises that stretch the joint capsule and, later, on strengthening exercises. A physical therapist can show you how far to push yourself and can teach you the appropriate exercises. Once you've learned your limitations, you can practice most of your exercises on your own at home.

Consult your primary care provider if you experience any symptoms. He or she can confirm your condition and guide you through the healing process.

Remember that this information is not intended to replace the advice of your doctor, but rather to increase awareness and help equip patients with information and facilitate conversations with your physician that will benefit your health.

If a joint injury or other orthopedic condition is keeping you from enjoying life the way you once did, Siloam Springs Regional Hospital offers the skill and experience of Matthew Coker, M.D., an independent member of the SSRH Medical Staff. Dr. Coker and the entire SSRH team are ready to get you back to your life. For more information, call 479-215-3124.

Community on 09/05/2018

Print Headline: The chilling pain of frozen shoulder syndrome

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